Tribes are the forest men who are certified by the President of India as scheduled tribes under Article 342 and as they are notified under a schedule they are called as scheduled tribes.Tribal population in India according to 2011 census is 10.43 crores. Among them 89.03% are living in rural areas and 10.03% are living in urban areas.These forest men who are famously known as real natives or aboriginals are the worst victims of modern development activities as they are forced to continuous displacements from their native lands i.e., Forest.
Alienation which is caused to tribes is mainly because of deforestation , restrictions on their movement in forest areas through Wildlife Act and Forest Act etc…Construction of Dams ,Industries ,mining activities needs huge amount of land and main source of minerals i.e., about 50% and coal i.e., about 90% is availed from tribal forest areas which is leaving our forest men displaced from their native lands and alienated in new habitats . In other words we can say that the modern developmental requirements are making livelihood difficult for tribes as the main sources of livelihood for tribes is from forest.
For example : The recent actions of (DIDR) Development induced Displacement and resettlement made tribes of Rashipur in Odisha and Polavaram in Andhra Pradesh homeless as development activities like Bauxite mining and Polavaram irrigation Dam are going to be established in these states respectively.
The census survey of India and Asian human rights commission stated that tribes are the worse victims of development with 40% of people displaced in India for development activities being tribes .
Thus , the main and effective way to develop the conditions of tribes in India is through efficient and progressive working of National Commission for scheduled tribes which works directly under the President of India.National commission for STs can take the following steps to improve living standards of tribes:
a) Work for the cause of inclusion of extreme tribes into the general social society through awareness programs and Education facilities.
b)Help tribes to take up different occupations to reduce their dependency on forests through skill development programs etc…
As development is necessary for the greater good of the whole human kind , we(government) have to be careful that this development is inclusive and sustainable in nature and welfare oriented in practice.