The world we are living in today is result of many Revolutions conducted by humans in process of their evolution from primitive social animals to present civilised social animals.Over this period of time humans conducted or raised revolutions in different fields like Cultural revolutions, Political revolutions and Economic revolutions.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, “a turn around”) is a “fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolts against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic) or political incompetence”.In book V of the Politics, the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BC) described two types of political revolution:
1.Complete change from one constitution to another.
2.Modification of an existing constitution.
Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy and socio-political institutions, usually in response to perceived overwhelming autocracy or plutocracy.
BASIS FOR REVOLUTION :
The main factors which contributed to the birth of revolutions of all types by humans are as follows :
1.The ability of humans to think , investigate ,analyse and practice. ( Discovery of fire can be said as the first Cultural revolution which is caused due to human’s inquisitive nature and led to major change in their living style.[cognitive revolution])
2. Human’s unlimited wants and limited resources.(This led to the invention of new methods of earning or producing livelihood [ practice of agriculture , domestication of animals and pastoralism]).
3.His need to feed increasing population and desire for leisure.(Invention of many machines in manufacturing and communication sectors[Industrial revolution]).
4.The introduction of theories or ideas like EQUALITY,LIBERTY,FRATERNITY and SOVEREIGNTY.( The American revolution, French revolution , Russian revolution etc…[examples of political revolutions])
REVOLUTIONS IN HUMAN EVOLUTION :
History of humankind began from three important revolutions which are commonly known as; cognitive revolution, the agricultural revolution and scientific revolution. These had some numerous effects on humans and their fellow organisms.
Cognitive revolution :Humans have extraordinarily large brains, the scientific researches proved. It consoles 25 percent of energy when body is under rest. In the initial stage they took a lot of time for the search of food, like a government diverting money from defence to education, humans diverted energy from biceps to neuron. The more things these hands could do, more successful their owners were, so evolutionary pressure brought about an increasing concentration of nerves.
Agricultural revolution :Homo sapiens came from East Africa and spread from there to Middle East; later on it spread all across Europe and Asia. Finally they had their appearance in Australia and The United States of America (USA). They continued to gather plants and watered them which was a revolution in the way human lived the agricultural revolution. Today scholars agree that agriculture sprang up in other parts of world by revolution. By the first CE vast area people through the world were agriculturists. In adding the new agricultural tasks demanded so much time that people were forced to settle near their fields. In the year 1500, there were about 500 million Homo sapiens in the entire world. Today there are seven billions. In 1500 humanity consumed about 13 trillion calories of energy per day.
During scientific revolution, mankind attained enormous new powers by investing resources from scientific researches. Even science needs more than just research to progress. It depends on the mutual reinforcement of science, politics and economies.
Note : The point to be noted here is that all the revolution were not called as revolutions at the time of its conduct , it is later that the Sociologist , Anthropologist and Historians named them as ‘Revolutions’ depending on the effects and changes these events brought in the society.
At present we can see different types of revolutions that take place in the society now and then , namely the SOCIO-POLITICAL (the ME too movement , Women empowerment , LGBTQ movement etc..) , SOCIO-ECONOMIC (Equal wages for equal work , Women- work place safety , IT revolution etc…) and SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL REVOLUTIONS ( Green earth and blue seas movement , Green economy , Climate change free agriculture etc…)